[An article on the raga TODI by Satish]
Over the course of random discussions with a friend, I realised that one rAga that truly typifies Carnatic music is TODI, a profound, delightful and soothing melody. It is the 8th meLam both in the sampUrNa, and the asaMpUrNa schemes of the Carnatic music tradition. The precise name is hanumatODi in the sampUrNa paddhati, and the prefix “hanuma” is inserted to yield the meLam number 8, according to the kaTapayAdi nomenclature ((ha = 8, na =0, so hanu= 80, which when reversed gives 08). According to the asaMpUrNa scheme of VE”nkaTamakhi (a tradition faithfully followed by the dIkSItar school), tODi is the eighth rAga”nga rAgam, known as janatODi (again, the prefix “jana” yields the number 8 according to the “kaTapayAdi” counting, since ja = 8, na =0).
tODiH SaDjagrahaH pUrNaH
sAyaMkAlE pragIyatE |
MELam hanumatODi / janatODi is the second mELam belonging to the second cakram (nEtra cakram), hence it is referred to as “nEtra — shrI”, with the mnemonic phrase ri ga ma dha ni or R1 G2 M1 D1 N2.
s r g m p d n .s
.s n d p m g r s
The notes taken are: SaDjam, shuddha riSabham, sadhAraNa gAndhAram, suddha madhymam, pa~ncamam, shuddha dhaivatam and kaishiki nishAdam.
A mELam with a symmetrical ArOhaNam and avarOhaNam. The tetra-chords are symmetrical, and separated by an interval of a major tone, dvishruti between S –R1 and P – D1; trishruti between G2 – M1 and N2 — S; catushruti interval between R1 – G2 and D1 –N2. It is this elegance that imparts beauty to this rAgam.
JIva svarams: all svarams
chAyA svarams: ga, ma, dha
aMsha svarams : ma, pa
nyAsa svarams: ga, ma, pa, dha, ni
It is a tristAyi and sarvasvara gamaka vArikA rAgam. This essentially means that gamakas are the life of tODi.
JhaNTa svara and dhATu svara prayOgams make this rAga sparkle; prayOgams omitting pa, sa add beauty (this is a rather interesting attribute, because tOdi retains its flavour and is distinctly identifiable, provided it is handled correctly, even in the absence of these svarams); Some vishESa prayOgams are : d r .s D and .r .s D.
Compositions in tODi commence usually in the notes sa, ga, ma pa, dha, ni.
This is a rAga from which supreme melody emanates, a sarva svara ra~njaka rAgam. Majestic vibrations and the meandering of the gamakams, laden with bhAva characterize the melodic identity of tODi. All svarams except madhyamam admit oscillation; The notes ga and dha constitute the nuclei of the melodic network of tODi; the un-oscillated ma acts as a balancing link between the pUrvA”ngam and uttarA”ngam.
As a rAga with tremendous scope for elaboration, tODi is usually featured as a main item, or in the rAgam tAnam pallavi expositions in concerts. Being a ghana rAgam, it enjoys pride of place in every concert, and lends itself to all types of compositions.
TODi is a sarva svara mUrcchanakAraka mELam, in the sense that all notes except pa~ncamam admit graha bhEdam to yield new mElams. The process of model shift of tonic (graha bhEdam) produces
TODi is believed to have originated from the rSabha mUrcchana of the SaDja grAmam.
It evokes bhakti and karuNa rasam. It is no wonder that numerous devotional songs are based on the soothing tODi, and some of its janyams. TODi is usually featured in the operas and dance dramas.
[More about tODi in future articles]